Oxymetazoline hydrochloride (HCl) cream, 1% (RHOFADE), an alpha-1A-adrenoceptor agonist and a partial agonist at the alpha-2 receptor, was approved in January of 2017 and is indicated for the treatment of persistent facial erythema associated with rosacea in adults. Nasal sprays containing a lower concentration of oxymetazoline HCl have been used off-label to treat rosacea for many years, and oxymetazoline hydrochloride (HCl) cream, 1% is the first approved treatment using this compound (Smith, 2017).
In two clinical trials, once-daily application of oxymetazoline hydrochloride (HCl) cream, 1% reduced persistent facial erythema associated with rosacea through 12 hours. After 29 days of treatment, patients achieving clinical success at 12 hours were 15% vs 6% for placebo in one study and 12% vs 6% in the second trial (RHOFADE PI, 2017).
Oxymetazoline HCl cream, 1% is not the first adrenergic agent approved for the treatment of rosacea. Brimonidine topical gel, 0.33% (MIRVASO) is an alpha-adrenergic agonist indicated for the topical treatment of persistent facial erythema of rosacea in adults that has been available since 2013 (MIRVASO PI, 2016).
Which of these two preparations is a better choice for your patient? There is no head-to-head comparison of these treatments, so it is hard to know. Combined assessment of results from different studies (for example, with network meta-analyses) has now become a fairly common approach for comparing treatments that have never been tested vs each other, but that has not been accomplished for these drugs. A look at the labels for the two agents suggests that effect sizes for oxymetazoline HCl cream, 1% and bromocriptine gel, 0.33% are very similar, but that application site erythema may occur more often with bromocriptine gel, 0.33% than with oxymetazoline HCl cream, 1% (RHOFADE PI, 2017; MIRVASO PI, 2016).
MIRVASO (brimonidine) topical gel. 2016. Available at: http://www.galdermausa.com/PI/MirvasoPI.pdf
RHOFADE (oxymetazoline hydrochloride) cream, for topical use. 2017. Available at: https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2017/208552s000lbl.pdf