Valerie D. Callender, MD
In this presentation at Maui Derm 2015, Dr Callender reviews the use of neuromodulators in skin of color. When we think about neuromodulators in skin of color, we need to think about how these aesthetic patients present in our office.
The concept of global beauty is the desire to maintain a beautiful, youthful appearance. This concept crosses all racial, cultural, and economic barriers. It’s more than just symmetry, size, and shape of facial features. So what is global beauty? It’s the appearance of smooth, even skin complexion, as well as the absence of rhytids, volume loss, and skin laxity. Remember that the amount and type of melanin determines one’s skin color. When estimating a person’s age, skin color uniformity was amongst the most important feature.
When we think about race, ethnicity and culture the definitions are very important.
- Race: an objective term that includes people of the same heritage who may or may not share genetic similarities but possess similar physical qualities.
- Ethnicity: a subjective term, that is self-assigned, each person determines the group that they most readily identify with & feel most connected to.
- Culture: refers to a set of patterned beliefs, values, conventions, or social practices of a group & may or may not take into account the concepts of race or ethnicity.
Often times we interchange these terms and it’s important for us to understand that the “Face of America” is changing. Our current population is over 301 million with people of color being the fastest growing segment. Skin lightness is a global concern. Skin color is a sign of health, attractiveness and youthfulness; it also affects job and marital prospects as well as earning potential.
What really changes things is the media as it depicts beauty and youth almost simultaneously. Dr Callender feels that it important for all of our patients, among a variety of ages and skin types, that beauty is really skin deep.
Cosmetic Concerns Among Women of Color
A survey was conducted regarding cosmetic concerns in 100 women (81 African American, 16 Hispanic, and 3 Asian). The mean age was 41 years old. 86% of the women were concerned with hyperpigmentation or dark spots; 80% were concerned with blotchy, uneven skin; 77% found combination oily or oily skin was of concern; 49% claimed sensitive skin; and 40% found that rough skin was an issue. (Grimes PE, Dermatol Clinics. 2000)
Cosmetic Procedures in 2013
Reference: ASAPS.Cosmetic surgery national data bank statistics. http://www.surgery.org/professionals/index. Accessed Sept 2014.
Facial skin again is common across all ethnic and racial groups and varies in severity, age of onset and cultural impact. Skin of color patients demonstrate signs of rhytids at a later age than do individuals with fair skin and signs of facial aging in darker skin occurs 10 to 20 years later than in Caucasians. This is due to the photoprotective properties of epidermal melanin. The mean protective factor from UVB in skin of color is 13.4 versus 3.4 for white skin. Remember that mid-facial volume loss and prominent tear troughs are striking features of skin aging in African Americans and perioral rhytids are less common. Photo-aging differences in Hispanics and Latinos are less characterized, but vary considerably due to the broad range of skin types in this population. As dermatologists, we must be aware of nuances surrounding facial rejuvenation for patients with diverse racial and ethnic backgrounds.
Botulinum Toxin-A in African Americans
There are several published studies looking at neuromodulators in skin of color. One of the early studies of onobotulinum toxin by Grimes and colleagues found that there was really no difference in terms of adverse events in skin of color patients and maximal response was observed on day 30 with 92.4% and 100% response, respectively. (Grimes, Shabazz.Derm Surg 2009;35(3):429-436) Kane and colleagues studied abobotulinum toxin with different dosing and also found no significant racial or ethnic differences in safety. African American subjects had a slightly higher rate ocular adverse events and a lower rate of injection site reactions. The response rates and duration were slightly higher in African American subjects (177 days in AA versus 109 in overall population), the reason for this is unknown. (Kane, et al. Plastic & Reconstructive Surg 2009;124(5):1619-1629.)
When we look at neuromodulators in Asian patients, we see differences in response rates with 10 units versus 20 units; however, there were no differences in adverse events. (Harii & Kawashima. Aesth PS 2008;32(5):724-730.) What are we really looking for among all of these studies is safety issues and that’s what’s important across all of these studies. A study of onobotulinum toxin in Brazilian patients, followed by TCA 35% peel and manual dermabrasion 7 days post-injection resulted in transient PIH in 33% of the subjects. Additionally, significantly less wrinkles were seen from 90 days to three years in subjects treated with onobotulinum toxin versus placebo. (Kadunc et al. Dermatol Surg 2007;33(9):1066-1072.)
Clinical Pearls for Skin of Color Patients
- Appropriate lighting and close examination is needed in identifying and avoiding blood vessels in darker skin
- Post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH) is uncommon but may occur from needle injection points
- Many Eastern Asian patients desire to have wider & rounded appearance of the eyes. BTX-A treatment using 2u lower eyelid & 12u crows feet is a nonsurgical option for these patients (Flynn, et al. Derm Surg 2001;27(8):703-708.)
- In Eastern Asian patients, the dose should be a six-point injection to the masseter (three-points per side for a total of 50-60 units). (Ahn BK, Kim YS, Kim HJ, Rho NK, Kim HS. Consensus recommendations on the aesthetic usage of botulinum toxin type A in Asians. Dermatol Surg 2013 Dec;39(12):1843-60.)
In general, there are no racial or ethnic differences in the treatment of facial lines with botulinum toxin-A. Safety and efficacy in all skin types has been demonstrated in many published clinical studies. As with any aesthetic procedure, understanding and consideration of cultural diversity must be given to each patient’s individual aesthetic ideals.
Judy L. Seraphine, MSc-Maui Derm News Editor